Avena agraria mutica Brot.
Avena algeriensis Trab.
Avena anglica Roem. & Schult.
Avena byzantina thellungiana (Malzev) Tab.Morais
Avena cinerea Roem. & Schult.
Avena dispermis Mill.
Avena distans Schur
Avena fatua brachytricha Thell.
Avena fatua contracta (Neilr.) Thell.
Avena fatua glaberrima (Thell.) Malzev
Avena fatua glaberrima Thell.
Avena fatua macrantha (Hack.) Malzev
Avena fatua macrathera Thell.
Avena fatua macrotricha Malzev
Avena fatua microtricha Malzev
Avena fatua nodipilosa Malzev
Avena fatua pilifera Malzev
Avena fatua pilosa (Koeler) Malzev
Avena fatua praegravis (E.Krause) Malzev
Avena fatua sativa (L.) Hausskn.
Avena fatua setulosa Thell.
Avena fatua subuniflora Trab.
Avena flava Roem. & Schult.
Avena fusca Schur
Avena fusciflora Schur
Avena geogica Zuccagni
Avena georgiana Roem. & Schult.
Avena glabrata Hausm.
Avena grandis Nevski
Avena heteromalla Haller
Avena hungarica Lucá
Avena macrantha (Hack.) Nevski
Avena mutata Samp.
Avena mutica Krock.
Avena nodipilosa (Malzev) Malzev
Avena orientalis Schreb.
Avena pendula Gilib.
Avena persarum Nevski
Avena podolica Pascal ex Zuccagni
Avena polonica Schwägr. ex Schmalh.
Avena ponderosa L. ex B.D.Jacks.
Avena praecocioides Litv.
Avena praecoqua Litv.
Avena praegravis (E.Krause) Roshev.
Avena pseudosativa (Thell.) Herter
Avena racemosa Thuill.
Avena sexflora Larrañaga
Avena shatilowiana Litv.
Avena sterilis pseudosativa Thell.
Avena sterilis thellungiana Malzev
Avena tatarica Ard.
Avena thellungii Nevski
Avena trabutiana Thell.
Avena trisperma Roem. & Schult.
Avena unilateralis Brouss. ex Roem. & Schult.
Avena verna Heuze
Common Name: Oats
Ripe seeds, ready for harvest
Photograph by: Matt Lavin
Avena sativa is an erect, annual grass with culms 40 - 180cm tall.
Oats have a long history of cultivation as a food crop, and are widely cultivated, mainly in the temperate zone, for their edible seed which is a staple food for many people. The plant also has a range of medicinal virtues, whilst its dried stems have various applications.
A widely cultivated food crop, it probably originated in western Asia around Iran and Iraq
Dry wasteland, cultivated ground and meadows, especially on heavier soils[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Avena sativa is a plant of the temperate zone, though it can also be cultivated in the subtropics and at higher elevations in the tropics. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 16 - 20°c, but can tolerate 5 - 30°c[
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -15°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at -1°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 600 - 1,000mm, but tolerates 250 - 1,500mm[
Oats are an easily grown crop that succeed in any moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun[
]. Loam soils are best, especially silt and clay loams[
]. Plants tolerate a poor dry soil[
] and also cool moist conditions[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, tolerating 4.5 - 7.5[
]. The plants are also reported to tolerate aluminium, disease, frost, fungus, herbicides, hydrogen fluoride, mycobacterium, nematode, rust, SO2, smut, and virus[
Oats are believed to be derived chiefly from two species, wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and wild red oat (Avena sterilis L.)[
]. Many different cultivars have been developed and they are widely cultivated for their seed; used as a source of protein and carbohydrate; as well as for hay; as winter cover; and are used as a pasture crop in the growing or 'milk' stage[
Oats are long-day plants, grown in cool climates in the Old and New World temperate zones, succeeding under variable conditions[
]. They are usually are not very winter hardy, although winter hardy cultivars have been developed[
]. A very hardy plant according to another report, which says that the cultivated oat succeeds as far north as latitude 70°N[
] and is widely cultivated in temperate zones for its edible seed, there are many named varieties[
Average seed yield is about 1.8 - 2 tonnes per hectare, while good yields can reach 3 tonnes[
Although lower yielding than wheat (Triticum spp.), the plant is able to withstand a wider range of climatic conditions and is therefore more cultivated in cooler and wetter areas[
Hot dry weather just before heading causes heads to blast and yields of seed to decrease[
Self-pollination is normal, but cross-pollination by wind also occurs[
]. If you wish to save the seed for sowing, each variety should be isolated about 180 metres away from other varieties[
Oats are in general easily grown plants but, especially when grown on a small scale, the seed is often completely eaten out by birds. Some sort of netting seems to be the best answer on a garden scale.
Seed - cooked[
]. The seed ripens in the latter half of summer and, when harvested and dried, can store for several years. It has a floury texture and a mild, somewhat creamy flavour. It can be used as a staple food crop in either savoury or sweet dishes. Used as a cereal, it is probably best known as the breakfast cereal porridge but it can also be used in many other ways. The seed can be sprouted and used in salads[
], the grain can also be ground into a flour and used in making biscuits, sourdough etc[
]. It is fairly low in gluten, and so is not really suitable for making bread[
]. The seed is an especially good food for convalescents and people with stomach problems[
]. Oat flour produced in the dry-milling operation currently is used as an antioxidant in food products[
]. Oat flour inhibits rancidity and increases the length of shelf-stability of fatty foods such as vegetable oils[
]. Whilst cultivated oats average about 17% protein, scientists screening thousands of samples of cultivated and wild species found that the wild species averaged 27% with some forms ranging up to 37%[
Oats are also one of the cereals used as a basic ingredient for making whisky[
Oats are harvested when grain is in the hard dough stage and straw is slightly green (when the moisture content of the grain is 14% or less). If too ripe, shattering causes seed loss. Crop is usually cut with binder and left in the field until dry and then threshed. In mechanized societies, oats are combined directly from standing grain. For this type of harvesting, crop must be fully ripe, usually when the straw has lost greenness and glumes have become white. Crop may be combined from windrow, or cut with a header harvester when the crop is dead ripe. Seeds are threshed and cleaned by winnowing, and artificially dried to below 14% moisture for storage[
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[
An edible oil is obtained from the seed, it is used in the manufacture of breakfast cereals[
Whilst used mainly as a food, oat grain does also have medicinal properties[
]. In particular oats are a nutritious food that gently restores vigour after debilitating illnesses, helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood and also increases stamina[
The seed is a mealy nutritive herb that is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, emollient, nervine and stimulant[
]. The seed contains the antitumor compound b-sitosterol and has been used as a folk remedy for tumours[
]. A gruel made from the ground seed is used as a mild nutritious aliment in inflammatory cases, fevers and after parturition[
]. It should be avoided in cases of dyspepsia accompanied with acidity of the stomach[
]. A tincture of the ground seed in alcohol is useful as a nervine and uterine tonic[
]. A decoction strained into a bath will help to soothe itchiness and eczema[
A poultice made from the ground seeds is used in the treatment of eczema and dry skin[
When consumed regularly, oat germ reduces blood cholesterol levels[
Oat straw and the grain are prescribed to treat general debility and a wide range of nervous conditions[254. They are mildly antidepressant, gently raising energy levels and supporting an over-stressed nervous system[
]. They are of particular value in helping a person to cope with the exhaustion that results from multiple sclerosis, chronic neurological pain and insomnia[
]. Oats are thought to stimulate sufficient nervous energy to help relieve insomnia[
An alcoholic extraction of oats has been reported to be a deterrent for smoking, though reports that oat extract helped correct the tobacco habit have been disproven[
A tincture of the plant has been used as a nerve stimulant and to treat opium addiction.
In an article riddled with errors, the Globe (February 28, 1984) reports that oat straw, usually taken as a tea, is a sexual nerve tonic[
Oats grow well with vetch but they inhibit the growth of apricot trees[
The straw has a wide range of uses such as for bio-mass, fibre, mulch, paper-making, building board and thatching[
]. It has also been used as a stuffing material for mattresses and these are said to be of great benefit for sufferers from rheumatism[
]. Some caution is advised in its use as a mulch since oat straw can infest strawberries with stem and bulb eelworm.
Oat hulls are basic in production of furfural, a chemical intermediate in the production of many industrial products such as nylon, lubricating oils, butadiene, phenolic resin glues, and rubber tread compositions[
]. Furfural is used in the manufacture of furan, an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, stabilizers and fine chemicals, it is also used in the manufacture of furfuryl alcohol, methylfuran and nitrofurans which are intermediates for making antimicrobial agents[
]. It is also used as a selective solvent in separation of saturated and unsaturated compounds in lubricating oils, gas oil and diesel fuels[
]. Oats hulls supply about 22% of the required furfural raw materials. Rice hulls, corn cobs, bagasse, and beech woods make up much of the remainder[
Oats hulls are also used in the manufacture of construction boards, cellulose pulp and as a filter in breweries[
Oat products are being marketed for the cosmetic industry and for human food[
]. An oat starch product that can be used in dusting and baby powders, antiperspirants, blush and eye shadow has been developed[
]. The starch is a substitute for talc and the beta glucan substitutes for hyaluronic acid, a high polymer derived from animal by products[
]. Combinations of oat starch and anti-irritant have uses as non-allergy dusting powders for applications, for example in surgical gloves[
]. The hydrolysed protein finds uses in shampoos. These ingredients are also being evaluated for use in animal care and pet care applications[
A handful of the grains, thrown into the bath water, will help to keep the skin soft because of their emollient action[
An extract of oat straw prevents feeding by the striped cucumber beetle[
Seed - sow in situ in early spring or in the autumn. Only just cover the seed. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.