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Useful Temperate Plants

Aristolochia paucinervis

Pomel

Aristolochiaceae

+ Synonyms

Aristolochia longa paucinervis (Pomel) Batt.

Common Name:

Aristolochia paucinervis
Flowering plant in native habitat
Photograph by: Fouad Msanda
Creative Commons License

General Information

Aristolochia paucinervis is a low-growing herbaceous, perennial plant with creeping stems.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.
Aristolochia paucinervis is fairly common and widely distributed in the western Mediterranean region, the Iberian Peninsula and Macaronesia. It has numerous low to medium impact threats including coastal development, tourism, overgrazing, trampling, over-collection, irregular fires and deforestation; and is threatened more generally by the direct and indirect impact of human activities such as leisure activities, infrastructure development and urbanisation. Although a population decline appears to be ongoing at some sites, mainly in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), the overall population trend appears to be stable.The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

Aristolochia paucinervis is highly toxic due to the presence of 'aristolochic acid' which is also carcinogenic; it is particularly dangerous for the kidneys. When the roots are used over a long period, they can cause irreversible kidney damage, haematuria (blood in the urine) and limb paralysis[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Botanical References

1315
Title
Revision of the genus Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) in Africa, Madagascar and adjacent islands
Publication
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 151, 219-238
Author
Holger De Groot, Stefan Wanke and Christoph Neinhuis
Publisher
 
Year
2006
ISBN
 
Description
 

Range

Southwest Europe and the western Mediterranean - Portugal, Spain, southern France, Morocco, Algeria, Madeira, Balearics, Canary Islands

Habitat

Sandy and stony pastures, meadows, rocky cliffs, scrub, woodlands clearings, cultivated fields, weed of crops, wood grassy mountains and Mediterranean forest; at elevations from 500 - 2,500 metres[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Medicinal Rating *  *
HabitPerennial
Height0.30 m
PollinatorsFlies
Cultivation StatusOrnamental,

Cultivation Details

Aristolochia paucinervis is a plant of humid and sub-humid to sub-arid Mediterranean bioclimates[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
In the wild the plant prefers moist humid to dry substrates, stony, clay and sandy soils, relatively poor with a basic pH. It grows in full sun to mid-shade and flowers in spring[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
The plant is pollinated by flies, which it attracts by producing a strong smell from the flowers which are typically saxophone-shaped[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers, often smelling like decaying flesh[
245
Title
Scented Flora of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Genders. R.
Publisher
Robert Hale. London.
Year
1994
ISBN
0-7090-5440-8
Description
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
]. They are pollinated by the small flies that are attracted to the flowers by these foetid odours and by the purple-brown colour of the flowers. The flies enter the flower when the stigmas are receptive and then become trapped in the hairy throat of the flower until after the anthers dehisce, thus ensuring pollination[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
,
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

The dried powdered root is used in the treatment of aortic palpitations, constipation and intestinal disorders, colic, gas gangrene and as a poison antidote for snakebites. The root is also used to treat skin diseases and infections such us such as tinea, dermatitis, impetigo and mycoses. Historically, the roots have been used as a stimulant during labour and from this fact derives its name: aristos-lokia, excellent and delivery. The ingestion of a mixture of small amounts of rhizome powder with either honey or salted butter is used by several traditional healers for the treatment of abdominal pain, particularly epigastric distress. The whole plant of Aristolochia paucinervis when dried and pulverized is used externally to treat ringworm and wound care[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

The plant is highly toxic due to the presence of 'aristolochic acid' which is also carcinogenic; it is particularly dangerous for the kidneys. When the roots are used over a long period, they can cause irreversible kidney damage, haematuria (blood in the urine) and limb paralysis[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Many species of Aristolochia have been used in the treatment of snakebite; the treatment may or may not be effective[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

The plant contains aristolochic acid. This compound has a long history of use in hebal medicine (through using plants of the genus Aristolochia) dating back at least to the 5th century CE in China and even earlier in Europe.
Aristolochis acid has a range of potential health benefits - it has been shown to stimulate white blood cell activity and speed the healing of wounds; it has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy; it can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia.
However, when taken internally Aristolochic acid also has negative effects upon the body - as well as having anti-cancer properties, it can also be carcinogenic; when used in large doses or even in small doses over a long period, it can be particularly dangerous for the kidneys, causing irreversible damage, haematuria (blood in the urine) and limb paralysis [
176
Title
Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
Publication
 
Author
Yeung. Him-Che.
Publisher
Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles
Year
1985
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
,
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
,
254
Title
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants
Publication
 
Author
Chevallier. A.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley. London
Year
1996
ISBN
9-780751-303148
Description
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
,
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
Aristolochic acid is often found as an ingredient in proprietary medicines - however, any internal use of plants in this genus cannot be recommended without the guidance of a skilled therapist[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Other Uses

None known

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse[
134
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 2.
Publication
 
Author
Rice. G. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. An interesting article on Ensete ventricosum.
]. Germination usually takes place within 1 - 3 months at 20°c[
134
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 2.
Publication
 
Author
Rice. G. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1988
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. An interesting article on Ensete ventricosum.
]. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts.
Division in autumn[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Root cuttings in winter[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2019-07-16. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Aristolochia+paucinervis>

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