The genus Antirrhinum was formerly treated in the family Scrophulariaceae, but most treatments have now (2015) transferred it to Plantaginaceae[
Antirrhinum angustifolium d'Urv.
Antirrhinum capitatum C.Presl
Antirrhinum compositum Lojac.
Antirrhinum diminutum Pomel
Antirrhinum fernandezcasasii Romo, Stübing & Peris
Antirrhinum grandiflorum Stokes
Antirrhinum hispanicum faurei Maire
Antirrhinum hispanorum Bordère ex Rothm.
Antirrhinum italicum Mill.
Antirrhinum latifolium cirrhigerum Welw. ex Ficalho
Antirrhinum latifolium linkianum (Boiss. & Reut.) Nyman
Antirrhinum latifolium pseudomajus Rouy
Antirrhinum latifolium purpurascens Benth.
Antirrhinum lazari Sennen
Antirrhinum leiocalyx Pau
Antirrhinum linkianum Boiss. & Reut.
Antirrhinum linkianum cirrhigerum (Welw. ex Ficalho) Rivas Mart., T.E.Díaz & Fern.Gonz.
Antirrhinum litigiosum Pau ex Sennen
Antirrhinum montevidense Mart. ex Colla
Antirrhinum murale Salisb.
Antirrhinum ottomanum Janka
Antirrhinum rhodium Boiss. ex Benth.
Antirrhinum romanum Sebast. & Mauri ex Nyman
Antirrhinum siculum algeriense Rouy
Antirrhinum siculum tortuosum (Bosc ex Vent.) Steud.
Antirrhinum ternatum Fern.Casas
Antirrhinum tortuosum Bosc ex Vent.
Antirrhinum vidalianum Pau & Font Quer
Antirrhinum vulgare Bubani
Orontium majus Pers.
Termontis racemosa Raf.
Common Name: Snapdragon
Flowering plant, growing on a wall in Thasos, Greece
Photograph by: User:Haplochromis
Antirrhinum majus is a short-lived perennial plant producing an erect, branched stem that can grow from 20 - 100cm tall[
The plant is sometimes harvested for local medicinal use. It is commonly grown as an ornamental in gardens, valued for its long-lasting floral display[
Mediterranean region of southern Europe, northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean
Old walls, rocks and dry places[
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Antirrhinum majus is a perennil plant of the Mediterranean region that flowers well in its first year from seed and so is generally able to be grown as a spring-sown annual in cooler regions of the temperate zone.
Prefers a light well drained loam and a sunny position[
]. Plants are tolerant of clay and lime soils, and also nutritionally poor soils, though they do less well in such conditions[
]. They grow well on old walls[
]. Plants grow best in sunny, relatively dry areas[
Plants are often grown as an annual since they usually degenerate in their second year[
]. They often self sow when well-sited[
There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value[
An oil that is little inferior to olive oil is said to be obtained from the seeds[
]. The report also says that the plant has been cultivated in Russia for this purpose[
]. The seeds are very small and I wonder about the authenticity of this report[
The leaves and flowers are antiphlogistic, bitter, resolvent and stimulant[
]. They have been employed in poultices on tumours and ulcers[
]. It is effective in the treatment of all kinds of inflammation and is also used on haemorrhoids[
]. The plant can be used as a diuretic, a treatment for scurvy, liver disorders, tumors and as a detergent and astringent[
The plant is harvested in the summer when in flower and is dried for later use[
The plant contains antirrhinoside, an iridoid glucoside which is of terpenoid origin and can be isolated in up to 1.5% of wet weight in some varieties[
]. Antirrhinoside is being investigated by the pharmaceutical industry as a potential building block for making a number of biologically active compounds for treating a wide range of diseases[
The plant also contains a number of flavonoid substances including anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, aurones, flavanones and cinnamic acids[
A green dye is obtained from the flowers, it does not require a mordant[
]. Dark green and gold can also be obtained if a mordant is used[
Seed - surface sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 10 - 21 days at 18°c[
]. Cool nights assist germination[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.
The seed can also be sown in situ in mid summer and will produce larger and more floriferous plants the following summer.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood in September in a cold frame[