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Useful Temperate Plants

Agave subsimplex

Trel.

Asparagaceae


The genus Agave is treated here in a wide sense to include taxa previously treated as belonging to the genera Manfreda, Prochnyanthes, Polianthes and Pseudobravoa. Not all botanists are happy with this treatment, with some feeling that these genera should remain distinct, at least until further studies have been carried out. In addition, given the high species diversity found in Agave, some feel that an alternative approach could be the recognition of several smaller genera within the current circumscription of Agave[
1855
Title
Two new species of Manfreda Salisb. (Agavaceae) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico
Publication
Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 135(2), 2008, pp. 168-177
Author
Hernández-Sandoval L., Orellana R. & Carnevali G.
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.3159/08-RA-023.1
Publisher
 
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

+ Synonyms

Common Name: Ahmmo

No Image.

General Information

Agave subsimplex is an evergreen, stemless, succulent plant forming a low-spreading rosette of leaves that can be 20 - 35cm tall and 50 - 70cm in diameter. The leaves on mature plants can each be 12 - 35cm long and 3 - 5cm wide near the base. After several years of growth, a flowering stem that can be around 2 - 3.5 metres tall is produced, after which the rosette will die. However, the plant usually produces a number of young plants around its base that will develop as new plants[
1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food.
Agave subsimplex has a restricted range and extent of occurrence, being found in only three locations. It is specific to granitic habitats which are dispersed and far between. There are ongoing declines due to coastal and urban development. The plant is classified as 'Vulnerable' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2020)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

Many Agave species have strong, sharp spines on the leaves and leaf tips.
In theory at least, the flowers, nectar, immature flowering stem and the centre of the rosette of all Agave species is edible and, with proper preparation, can provide a sweet, tasty foodstuff. Some species, however, contain relatively high levels of saponins (which makes them taste bitter) and some other compounds which can cause bellyache, and so these would only be eaten in times of desperation. In addition, many people may find these foods to be strongly laxative the first few times they eat them[
1846
Title
The Agaves of Baja California
Publication
Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 130,
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
California Academy of Sciences; San Francisco
Year
1978
ISBN
0068-5461
Description
 
].

Botanical References

1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
,
1844
Title
Agave Agavaceae
Publication
Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons, pp 21-311
Author
Thiede J.
Website
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56486-8_111
Publisher
Springer Nature
Year
2020
ISBN
 
Description
 

Range

Southwest N. America - northwest Mexico (western Sonora)

Habitat

Low elevations in the coastal Sonoran Desert, growing in small colonies on outwash slopes of the granatic and volcanic mountains and their adjacent islands[
1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
]

Properties

Conservation StatusVulnerable
Edibility Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Perennial
Height0.30 m
PollinatorsBees, Wasps, Hummingbirds, Moths, Bats
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

Agave species are found mainly in the arid and semi-arid regions of southwestern N. America, especially in Mexico. Many species can withstand at least a few degrees of frost and will succeed outdoors in warm temperate climates, but only in drier regions and where soils are very well-drained.
Agave species generally require a sunny position, succeeding in most soils of medium-fertility so long as they are very well-drained. Most species are undemanding as to the soil pH, though those found in the wild on limestone soils will grow better in neutral to alkaline conditions. Plants are generally very tolerant of dry conditions and of drought[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Most Agave species are monocarpic, individual rosettes living for a number of years without flowering before sending up an often very large flowering stem and then dying after flowering and setting seed. This species, however, produces a number of new rosettes from suckers or offsets during its lifespan and these new plants will continue to grow after the death of the parent plant.
Individual plants take about 7 - 15 years in their native habitat, considerably longer in colder climates, before flowering[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
].

Edible Uses

This species is gathered for cooking and eating. The pit-baked stems are either cubed and cooked with other foods, made into flat cakes or soaked in water and consumed as a sweet drink[
1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
].
As it ages, the centre of the rosette (sometimes called either the heart or the head) is used by the plant as a store for moisture and becomes rich in carbohydrates. Traditionally, the rosette was harvested before the plant developed a flowering stem but as it was nearing maturity. The leaves were removed, but the leaf bases were left attached. The heart and leaf bases were then slow-baked in an earth oven for 1 - 2 days, which converts the carbohydrates into sugars, and the heart develops a very sweet flavour. The heart can then be cut into slices and eaten as is; it can be dried for later use; or it can be juiced and made into a syrup which could then be either fermented or distilled if desired.
The baked leaf bases have a sweet flavour but are very fibrous. They would be chewed to extract the sweetness and the remaining fibrous mass spat out.
A word of warning, however. People new to this food are likely to find that it has a strongly laxative effect the first time or two that they eat it.

Medicinal

The leaves contain small amounts of sapogenin (0.07-0.14%)[
1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
]. Sapogenins are bitter-tasting compounds that are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry since they can be used as precursors for fabricating medicines such as cortisone and the sex hormones[
1842
Title
The Agave Family in Sonora; Agriculture Handbook No. 399
Publication
 
Author
Gentry H.S.
Publisher
Agicultural Research Service, USDA; Washington D.C.
Year
1972
ISBN
 
Description
Gives quite a lot of information on the traditional uses of the plants.
]. The quantity of sapogenin in this species are too low to be of interest

Other Uses

None known

Propagation

Seed - surface sow in a light position, mid spring in a warm greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15 - 20°c[
133
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
Publication
 
Author
Rice. G. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1987
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots of well-drained soil when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse until they are at least 15cm tall. Plant out at the beginning of the growing season, and give some protection from the cold for at least their first few winters[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Offsets and suckers can be potted up at any time they are available. Keep in a warm greenhouse until they are well established[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Bulbils, where produced, are an easy method of propagation. Simply pot them up and plant out at the beginning of a growing season when they are 10cm or more tall.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2022-08-17. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Agave+subsimplex>

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