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Useful Temperate Plants

Acacia implexa

Benth.

Fabaceae


Classification of the genus Acacia (in the wider sense) has been subject to considerable debate. It is generally agreed that there are valid reasons for breaking it up into several distinct genera, but there has been disagreement over the way this should be done. As of 2017, it is widely (but not completely) accepted that the section that includes the majority of the Australian species (including this one) should retain the name Acacia, whilst other sections of the genus should be transferred to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa, Senegalia and Vachellia[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Racosperma implexum (Benth.) Pedley

Common Name: Hickory Wattle

No Image.

General Information

Acacia implexa is an evergreen tree that can grow from 3 - 12 metres tall, reaching 15 metres on selected sites. The trunk sometimes divides into two either near the ground or at about 2 metres; each bole can be 15 - 40cm in diameter, exceptionally to 60cm. The plant often suckers and can form clumps of growth[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
,
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
]. Although it produces true leaves as a seedling, and also as a yound plant, llike most members of this section of the genus, the mature plant does not have true leaves but has leaf-like flattened stems called phyllodes[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of materials. It has potential as a crop for high volume wood production, and can be used in soil stabilization programmes.
Introduced into South Africa as a plantation crop, the tree has escaped from cultivation and it has been declared a weed there[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].

Known Hazards

Stock deaths have been caused by ingestion of green pods[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].
The bark contains high levels of tannins and saponins and was traditionally used as a fish poisin to stun fish so that they could be captured for eating[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
Especially in times of drought, many Acacia species can concentrate high levels of the toxin Hydrogen cyanide in their foliage, making them dangerous for herbivores to eat.

Botanical References

286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.

Range

Australia - Victoria, New South wales, Queensland

Habitat

Found in a variety of situations but often in shallow, well-drained soil in hilly country in woodlands or open forest[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].

Properties

Weed PotentialYes
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height10.00 m
Growth RateFast
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Acacia implexa is a plant of the temperate to subtropical zones of eastern Australia, mainly in higher rainfall areas. It is fairly frost-tolerant when dormant, surviving short periods with temperatures falling to around -6°c[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
]. The plant grows best in moister regions, cropping well in an area where the mean annual rainfall was 825, (where it attained a height of 3.1 metres and a dbh of 38mm at 2.6 years, increasing to 4.2 metres with a dbh of 44mm at 5.2 years[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
Requires a sunny position. Established plants are reasonably drought tolerant[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
]. Requires a well-drained soil, succeeding in a variety of textures even when the fertility is low[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
]. Plants are tolerant of strong winds, though they are apt to become wind-shaped[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
A vigorous, long-lived, fast to moderately fast growing species[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
The plant responds well to coppicing, and can also sucker freely, particularly if the main stems are cut back severely or if the roots are disturbed[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
The plant is resistant to debarking by stock[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria; these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[
755
Title
Nodulation Plants in GRIN Taxonomy
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ars-grin.gov/~sbmljw/cgi-bin/taxnodul.pl?language=en
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database listing plants that have either positive or negative reports on root and stem nodulation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
].
This species is often confused with Acacia melanoxylon[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].

Edible Uses

None known

Medicinal

The bitter bark of this tree probably possesses medicinal properties[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. A lotion made from the bark is ued to treat skin disorders[
1096
Title
Native Tastes of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://tasteaustralia.biz/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A website with detailed information on around 50 species of native Australian food plants, including recipes.
].
The bark of young trees contains a very pleasant bitter[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The bark of all Acacia species contains greater or lesser quantities of tannins and are astringent. Astringents are often used medicinally - taken internally, for example. they are used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, and can also be helpful in cases of internal bleeding. Applied externally, often as a wash, they are used to treat wounds and other skin problems, haemorrhoids, perspiring feet, some eye problems, as a mouth wash etc[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Many Acacia trees also yield more or less of a gum from the trunk and stems. This is sometimes taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and haemorrhoids[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant has a spreading root system and is an excellent plant to use for erosion control on rocky hills[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
Moderately useful for shelter purposes, the tree is occasionally planted in windbreaks and for shade on slopes and tablelands[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].

Other Uses

The bark contains much tannin. One analysis showed 7.82% of tannic acid and 20.54% of extract, whilst another showed 14.16% of tannic acid and 33.51% of extract[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].

The leaves produce a yellow dye with alum, and brown dye when copper is used as mordant[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].

The heartwood is dark-brown with paler stripes; the sapwood is paler in colour. The wood is close-grained, strong and hard. Of good quality, it has been used for turning, furniture making, parquetry etc[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
,
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
The wood is used for fuel[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].The dried seed of most, if not all, members of this genus has a hard seedcoat and may benefit from scarification before sowing to speed up germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 - 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen - if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing. Sow the seed in Spring in a greenhouse. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and consider giving them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors.
Acacia seeds that have matured fully on the bush and have been properly dried have a hard seed coat and can be stored in closed containers without deterioration for 5 - 10 years or more in dry conditions at ambient temperatures. It is best to remove the aril, which attracts weevils and can lead to moulds forming. The arils are easilyremoved by placing the seeds in water and rubbing them between the hands, then drying the seeds and winnowing them[
1294
Title
Potential of Australian Acacias in combating hunger in semi-arid lands
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3):161-169 (2002)
Author
Rinaudo A.; Patel P.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Cuttings[
1301
Title
Acacia Search; Evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for Southern Australia
Publication
 
Author
Maslin B.R. & McDonald M.W.
Publisher
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation; Western A
Year
2004
ISBN
0642 58585 7
Description
 
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-10-16. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Acacia+implexa>

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