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Useful Temperate Plants

Acacia acuminata

Benth.

Fabaceae


Classification of the genus Acacia (in the wider sense) has been subject to considerable debate. It is generally agreed that there are valid reasons for breaking it up into several distinct genera, but there has been disagreement over the way this should be done. As of 2017, it is widely (but not completely) accepted that the section that includes the majority of the Australian species (including this one) should retain the name Acacia, whilst other sections of the genus should be transferred to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa, Senegalia and Vachellia[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Acacia burkittii Benth.

Common Name: Myall

No Image.

General Information

Acacia acuminata is an evergreen shrub or a small tree that can grow up to 12 metres tall in the west of its range but is generally smaller towards the east[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
,
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Often multistemmed, when single-stemmed the bole is generally straight, 30 - 200cm long and 10 - 30cm in diameter[
1292
Title
Acacia species as large-scale crop plants in theWestern Australian wheatbelt
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 96-108 (2002)
Author
Bartle J.; Cooper D.; Olsen G.; Carslake J.
Website
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283798072
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The tree produces a high quality timber, though it is generally on the small side. It is harvested from the wild for mainly local use. The tree is also said to be a traditional food source for the native Australians and is also grown as an ornamental, where it can be used as a hedge. It has been proposed as a potential commercial seed crop in Western Australia[
1292
Title
Acacia species as large-scale crop plants in theWestern Australian wheatbelt
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 96-108 (2002)
Author
Bartle J.; Cooper D.; Olsen G.; Carslake J.
Website
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283798072
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
,
1293
Title
Domestication of wattles with edible seeds for the wheatbelt of Western Australia
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 170-180 (2002)
Author
McDonald M.W.; Maslin B.R.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Known Hazards

The seed of many Acacia species, including this one, is edible and highly nutritious, and can be eaten safely as a fairly major part of the diet. Not all species are edible, however, and some can contain moderate levels of toxins[
1295
Title
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop
Publication
Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops pp 228-236, (1996) ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Author
Lister P.R.; Holford P.; Haigh T.; Morrison D.A.
Website
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/v3-toc.html
Publisher
ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Year
1996
ISBN
0-9615027-3-8
Description
 
]. Especially when harvesting from the wild, especial care should be taken to ensure correct identification of any plants harvested for food[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Especially in times of drought, many Acacia species can concentrate high levels of the toxin Hydrogen cyanide in their foliage, making them dangerous for herbivores to eat.

Botanical References

286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.

Range

Australia - Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales

Habitat

Often in gently undulating topography, on lateritic gravels or red-brown earths in low semi-arid woodlands and tall shrublands, and in clayey soils on flats and in red sands, often near intermittent streams[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height8.00 m
Growth RateMedium
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Acacia acuminata is a plant of semi-arid, warm temperate to subtropical climates with a mainly winter rainfall. It is found at elevations up to 400 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 17 - 28°c, but can tolerate 6 - 38°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures falling occasionally to about -5°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at 0°c[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 350 - 500mm, but tolerates 300 - 700mm[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
Found in the wild on soils that range from clays to red sand and granitic gravels[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Succeeds in soils of medium to low fertility[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
]. Established plants are fairly drought tolerant[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 7.5[
418
Title
Ecocrop
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.
].
The plant can be grown as an ornamental, where it can be used to make a hedge or screen[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
The plant has potential for use as a cultivated edible seed crop. It can produce heavy yields of palatable seeds, but its fruiting behaviour tends to be erratic and possibly related to the timing, frequency and intensity of rainfall[
1293
Title
Domestication of wattles with edible seeds for the wheatbelt of Western Australia
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 170-180 (2002)
Author
McDonald M.W.; Maslin B.R.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The seeds of most acacia species can be quickly and efficiently harvested at full maturity without the need for any specialised equipment. Small seed-bearing branches can be cut and beaten on sheets, or bushes can be beaten or shaken directly onto large sheets[
1294
Title
Potential of Australian Acacias in combating hunger in semi-arid lands
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3):161-169 (2002)
Author
Rinaudo A.; Patel P.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
A moderately long-lived but relatively slow growing small tree[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
Plants do not respond well to coppicing[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].
This species is the main tree being used as a host in sandalwood (Santalum species) plantaions[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked[
1293
Title
Domestication of wattles with edible seeds for the wheatbelt of Western Australia
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 170-180 (2002)
Author
McDonald M.W.; Maslin B.R.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. Palatable[
1293
Title
Domestication of wattles with edible seeds for the wheatbelt of Western Australia
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3) : 170-180 (2002)
Author
McDonald M.W.; Maslin B.R.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. It can be eaten in the same ways as other small legume seeds and is also ground into a powder then used as a flavouring in desserts or as a nutritious supplement to pastries and breads[
1295
Title
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop
Publication
Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops pp 228-236, (1996) ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Author
Lister P.R.; Holford P.; Haigh T.; Morrison D.A.
Website
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/v3-toc.html
Publisher
ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Year
1996
ISBN
0-9615027-3-8
Description
 
]. Traditionally, the seeds were ground into a powder and then cooked[
1295
Title
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop
Publication
Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops pp 228-236, (1996) ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Author
Lister P.R.; Holford P.; Haigh T.; Morrison D.A.
Website
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/v3-toc.html
Publisher
ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Year
1996
ISBN
0-9615027-3-8
Description
 
]. The very dark brown to brownish black, oblong to almost globose seed is 3 - 6mm long[
286
Title
Flora of Australia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/abif/flora/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
The full information from the Flora of Australia - on-line. An excellent resource.
].
Acacia seeds are highly nutritious and contain around 26% protein, 26% available carbohydrate, 32% fibre and 9% fat. The fat content is higher than most legumes with the aril providing the bulk of fatty acids present. These fatty acids are largely unsaturated. The energy content is high in all species tested, averaging 1480 ±270 kJ per 100g. The seeds are low glycaemic index foods - the starch is digested and absorbed very slowly, producing a small, but sustained rise in blood glucose and so delaying the onset of exhaustion in prolonged exercise[
1295
Title
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop
Publication
Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops pp 228-236, (1996) ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Author
Lister P.R.; Holford P.; Haigh T.; Morrison D.A.
Website
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/v3-toc.html
Publisher
ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Year
1996
ISBN
0-9615027-3-8
Description
 
].

The ground seed can be used to produce a high quality, caffeine-free coffee-like beverage[
1295
Title
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop
Publication
Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops pp 228-236, (1996) ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Author
Lister P.R.; Holford P.; Haigh T.; Morrison D.A.
Website
https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/v3-toc.html
Publisher
ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Year
1996
ISBN
0-9615027-3-8
Description
 
].

A gum, resin and the seeds are said to be traditional foods of the Aborigines[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

Medicinal

The bark of all Acacia species contains greater or lesser quantities of tannins and are astringent. Astringents are often used medicinally - taken internally, for example. they are used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, and can also be helpful in cases of internal bleeding. Applied externally, often as a wash, they are used to treat wounds and other skin problems, haemorrhoids, perspiring feet, some eye problems, as a mouth wash etc[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Many Acacia trees also yield greater or lesser quantities of a gum from the trunk and stems. This is sometimes taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and haemorrhoids[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant has wide-ranging roots and can be used for soil stabilization, especially on sandy sites[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
]. It can also be used to make a hedge or screen[
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

Other Uses

The tree yields a scented wood, which may have potential for use in perfumery[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
This wood possesses a rich colour, varying from violet to crimson, with a very hard, close, lustrous grain. It is said to be very durable, and is reported to be able to last seventy years in the ground as posts[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
719
Title
A Manual of the Timbers of the World
Publication
 
Author
Howard A.L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
MacMillan and Co.; London.
Year
1934
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent and comprehensive book on timbers. Rather dated, but still a main source of information for many of the less known woods. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. An aromatic wood with a scent some describe as like violets and others as raspberries; a small ornamental box nearly forty years old still retained its scent, which was apparent on opening the lid[
719
Title
A Manual of the Timbers of the World
Publication
 
Author
Howard A.L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
MacMillan and Co.; London.
Year
1934
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent and comprehensive book on timbers. Rather dated, but still a main source of information for many of the less known woods. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. It is probable that, when in a fresher condition, the wood possesses a stronger and different scent. It is a valuable wood for turnery and inlay, solid wood products, craftwood, posts (including fencing), and as a speciality timber for quality furniture[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
,
719
Title
A Manual of the Timbers of the World
Publication
 
Author
Howard A.L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
MacMillan and Co.; London.
Year
1934
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent and comprehensive book on timbers. Rather dated, but still a main source of information for many of the less known woods. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The wood makes a high quality fuelwood, and is also used to make a high quality charcoal[
601
Title
The Useful Native Plants of Australia.
Publication
 
Author
Maiden J.H.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Turner & Co.; London.
Year
1889
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of the uses of many Australian plants and other species naturalised, or at least growing, in Australia. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
707
Title
Florabank Fact Sheets
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.florabank.org.au/lucid/key/Species%20Navigator/Media/Html/index.htm#D
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent on-line publication. At present their are 132 species in the list, giving lots of information on growing and using the plants, plus information on their climatic tolerances, distribution maps and photographs.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a sunny position in a warm greenhouse[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
]. Stored seed should be scarified, pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then sown in a warm greenhouse in early spring. The seed germinates in 3 - 4 weeks at 25°c[
133
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 1.
Publication
 
Author
Rice. G. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1987
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
]. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and consider giving them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors.
Acacia seeds that have matured fully on the bush and have been properly dried have a hard seed coat and can be stored in closed containers without deterioration for 5 – 10 years or more in dry conditions at ambient temperatures. It is best to remove the aril, which attracts weevils and can lead to moulds forming. The arils are easilyremoved by placing the seeds in water and rubbing them between the hands, then drying the seeds and winnowing them[
1294
Title
Potential of Australian Acacias in combating hunger in semi-arid lands
Publication
Conservation Science W. Aust. 4 (3):161-169 (2002)
Author
Rinaudo A.; Patel P.; Thomson L.A.J.
Publisher
 
Year
2002
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, mid summer in individual pots in a frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Overwinter in a greenhouse for the first winter and plant out in their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Fair percentage[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-12-17. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Acacia+acuminata>

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