Abies alba equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Asch. & Graebn.
Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.
Abies cephalonica graeca (Fraas) Tang S.Liu
Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Mattf.
Abies leioclada Steven ex Gordon
Abies nordmanniana bornmuelleriana (Mattf.) Coode & Cullen
Abies nordmanniana equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Guin. & Maire
Abies olcayana Ata & Merev
Abies pectinata equi-trojani Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.
Abies pectinata graeca Fraas
Abies pectinata leioclada (Steven) Link ex Carrière
Abies picea leioclada (Steven) Lindl. & Gordon
Picea nordmanniana (Steven) Loudon
Pinus abies leioclada (Steven) Endl.
Pinus abies nordmanniana (Steven) F.Muell.
Pinus leioclada Steven
Pinus nordmanniana Steven
Pinus picea leioclada (Steven) Ledeb.
Common Name: Caucasian Fir
Abies nordmanniana is an evergreen tree with a narrow, conical crown; it can grow up to 60 metres tall. The straight, cylindrical bole can be 150cm in diameter[
An important timber tree in the Caucasus and Turkey where it is highly valued for its straight grain and easily workable wood . It is a very ornamental tree that can hold its leaves for up to 26 years[
]. It is often cultivated as a timber crop in C. Europe, and is also sometimes grown as a 'Christmas tree'[
This species forms extensive forests which are largely intact and has a widespread distribution throughout the Black Sea Region of northwestern Turkey, eastwards to the western Caucasus. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
W. Asia - northern Turkey to western Transcaucasus
Montane forests, sometimes forming pure stands, often with Picea species; often on northern slopes; growing on deep fertile soils derived from igneous and granite rocks; at elevations around 1,200 - 2,200 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
A plant of montane regions in the temperate zone.
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[
]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[
]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[
], but it tolerates more alkaline conditions than many other members of the genus[
]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope and in areas with cool wet summers[
Trees grow quickly when young, a 60cm increase within 2 years of planting out is not uncommon[
]. It rarely exceeds this rate as it gets older though[
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
Wood - light in weight, straight-grained, soft, not very durable[
]. Of poor quality[
]. Easily worked, it is often used for construction, pulp etc[
Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse or outdoors in early spring[
]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[
]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[
] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[