Abies kotschyana Fenzl ex Tchich.
Abies rinzii Gordon
Abies selinusia CarriÃ¨re
Abies tchugatskoi Lawson ex Gordon
Picea cilicica (Antoine & Kotschy) Rauch. ex Gordon
Pinus cilicica Antoine & Kotschy
Pinus tchugatskoi Fisch. ex Henkel & Hochst.
Abies cilicica is an evergreen tree with a long, narrow crown; it can grow up to 30 metres tall with a straight, cylindrical bole[
The tree is harvested from the wild for its wood, which is traded locally.
Abies cilicica has a relatively wide distribution in Turkey, Lebanon and Syria, though the small subpopulations of the typical subspecies in Lebanon and Syria are both heavily degraded and should be considered Critically Endangered at the national level. The Mediterranean vegetation of southern Turkey, especially the montane areas, is considered to be at high risk from climate change, with records clearly showing that summer temperatures are rising and in the last five decades the annual rainfall has decreased significantly. These trends are creating an increased risk of fire, and are also contributing to a decrease in the general health of the trees which in turn makes them more vulnerable to pathogen attack. The Taurus Mountains are also seeing a big increase in the number of tourist which also increases the risk of forest fire. The plant is currently classified as 'Near Threatened' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
W. Asia - southern Turkey, northern Lebanon.
Mixed forests, occasionally forming pure stands, favouring calcareous substrates which are shallow, rocky and well drained; at elevations from 1,000 - 2,000 metres[
|Conservation Status||Near Threatened
|Other Uses Rating||
A plant of the warm temperate to subtropical zones, where it can be found at elevations up to 2,000 metres. Dormant trees are very frost tolerant, but young growth is very subject to frost damage[
The plant favours calcareous substrates which are shallow, rocky and well drained[
]. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[
A fast-growing tree[
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
The wood is used for indoor construction, mainly as plywood[
Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse or outdoors in early spring[
]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[
]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[
] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[