Abies acicularis Maxim. ex Lavallée
Abies alba cephalonica (Loudon) K.Richt.
Abies apollinis Link
Abies apollinis panachaica (Heldr.) Boiss.
Abies apollinis reginae-amaliae (Heldr.) Boiss.
Abies heterophylla K.Koch
Abies luscombeana Loudon
Abies panachaica Heldr.
Abies peloponnesiaca Haage ex K.Koch
Abies peloponnesica Haage ex Heldr.
Abies picea apollinis (Link) Lindl. & Gordon
Abies reginae-amaliae Heldr.
Picea apollinis (Link) Rauch. ex Gordon
Picea apollinis panachaica (Heldr.) Boiss.
Picea cephalonica (Loudon) Loudon
Picea panachaica Heldr. ex Carrière
Pinus abies apollinis (Link) Endl
Pinus abies cephalonica (Loudon) Christ
Pinus abies panachaica (Heldr.) Christ
Pinus apollinis (Link) Antoine
Pinus cephalonica (Loudon) Endl.
Pinus picea graeca Fraas
Common Name: Grecian Fir
Abies cephalonica forest at Petrouli, Thessalia, Greece
Photograph by: gterez at Flickr
Abies cephalonica is an evergreen tree with a narrow, conical crown; it can grow 40 metres or more tall with a straight, cylindrical bole[
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use of its wood and has sometimes been cultivated as a timber tree[
Although a decrease in the population of this species has been reported during the last five decades, latterly mainly due to summer wild-fires, nevertheless the species has a widespread distribution in Greece. It is recorded from 11 main locations and typically most of these contain extensive stands. Even though it is highly likely that there will be further loss of forest, especially as a result of summer wild-fires, it is thought that this will not be sufficient to warrant the species to be assessed against a category of threat in the foreseeable future. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Europe - S. Greece to Yugoslavia and Albania
Often found in pure stands, growing on cool wet mountainsides at elevations from 400 - 2,000 metres or more[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Trees grow very well in Britain, and unlike most other members of this genus they succeed in southern and south-eastern England[
] though they are slow growing there. They are at their best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and the far west of Britain where growth is much faster[
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant but growth is slower in dense shade[
]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[
]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5, though it also succeeds in quite chalky soils with a pH up to 8[
]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[
This species needs careful siting because it usually comes into leaf early in the spring and the young growth can be damaged by late frosts[
]. Trees can therefore be rather slow to establish[
]. A position sheltered from early morning sun is preferred and frost hollows should be avoided[
Growth in girth can be quite fast, 2 metres in 40 years has been recorded[
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Trees commence producing seed when about 50 years old[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
Wood - light, soft, durable. Used for construction, pulp, etc[
Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse or outdoors in early spring[
]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[
]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[
] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[